charcoal briquettes research paper

<>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> 6 0 obj As the ratio of WH to molasses decreases, the volatile matter content decreases. 4, Parts A and B. Springer, Verlag, New York.

The initial failure criterion during compression test was breakage. According to local regulations, no specific permissions were required to sample in PD Morfort North River.

Also, the ash content was found to decrease as the ratio of molasses to WH increased. 16, No. Table 1 shows the proximate analysis of the formulated water hyacinth-molasses briquette in comparison with briquettes from other biomass and binder sources. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It should be noted that the binder is 80% solution of molasses in water. This study however showed that briquette B has the highest heating value. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was done by the Analytical Laboratory Services of Chemistry Department at College Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Visayas. Received 2018 Jun 12; Accepted 2018 Oct 25.


They were immediately removed from the carbonizer and then stored in a closed steel container to cool and prevent the charcoal from ashing.

FAO 2009 Criteria and indicators for Sustainable Woodfuels: Case Studies from Brazil, Guyana, Nepal, Philippines and Tanzania. According to MNdegwa [28], molasses improve the adherence of particles and forms strong inter-particle bonds between particles thereby enhancing stability of the material. Further research could aim to estimate the gas emissions of the briquettes in order to provide an indication of environmental friendliness, similar to studies available on coal-water slurries [33, 34]. Several studies indicate that high ash content in briquettes will lower calorific value and combustion efficiency [7, 27]. The charcoal was then homogeneously mixed manually at different ratios with the molasses solution until a dense mass, with the ability to be compacted, was obtained. In order to upgrade biomass residues for a variety of applications, their original form characterized by high moisture content, irregular shapes and sizes, low bulk density, difficulty in handling, transporting and storing, have to undergo some changes to make their use more practical and economical [3,4]. 10 0 obj

Emrich W., 1985, Handbook of Charcoal Making, Reidel Publishing Co., Boston. Three varying volumes of kerosene, 5 ml, 10 ml, and 15 ml were added to the briquettes (3 replicates per blend) and the first sign of visible igniting was the basis for recording the ignition time. Foley G., 1986, Charcoal Making in Developing Countries, Earthscan, IIED. about navigating our updated article layout. gasifier biomass institutional 5 0 obj Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Oil palm biomass as potential substitution raw materials for commercial biomass briquettes production, Effects of operating variables on durability of fuel briquettes from rice husks and corn cobs, Physical properties of rice husk and bran briquettes under low pressure densification for rural applications, Optimum parameters for the formulation of charcoal briquettes using bagasse and clay as binder, European Journal of Sustainable Development, Physical and combustion properties of charcoal briquettes from neem wood residues. The briquettes became very wet and excess kerosene leaked out, thus no ignition test was conducted with this rate of kerosene. Blesa MJ, Miranda JL, Moliner R, Izquierdo MT, Palacio JM. 13 0 obj To improve fuel quality, the charcoal has to undergo densification or briquetting.

The surface temperature of the carbonizer was monitored using a thermocouple (DIGI-SENSE Model 2025019). Charcoal briquettes should aim to be environmentally acceptable. Surface images (Fig 5) show distinct morphologies between the charcoal and the briquette.

Another of these applications is fuel production. SD/89/048, Biomass Technology Group, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. Renewable Energy Activities, USAID.

), 1974, Industrial Pollution, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

The manufactured briquettes were dried in a natural convection oven at 105 C for 8 hours, cooled and packed in polyethylene plastics to prevent re-adsorption of water.

Table 1 shows the effect of water hyacinth (WH)-molasses ratio on the VCM content of the briquettes. Large volumes of waste biomass residues are generated annually in developing countries as by-products of the commercial forestry, agricultural and industrial sectors.

From several trials, three charcoal-binder blends with the following water hyacinth-molasses (80% molasses by weight) ratios were chosen for characterization: A (40:60), B(30:70) and C(20:80). xXrFj5fy-kW}A0X#~H&@+Iz.=gfxM j0,U:n%VOww6-rT0atJ4CAwph6LWS

When not managed and controlled, these plants will cause blockage in bodies of water, resulting to floods during heavy rains and typhoons.

It is important to note from Table 1 that the VCM of pure WH is higher than the VCM of the briquettes produced. Dried water hyacinth was carbonized at a temperature between 350C to 500C in a fabricated fine biomass carbonizer. 1 0 obj The equipment used was INSTRON Model 1000. The results have shown the potential of converting water hyacinth into an alternative fuel source. 4 0 obj The water hyacinth used in charcoal production was collected from one of the rivers, PD Morfort North River, at 10 51' 42" North 122 43' 1"East. Compression test was done in accordance with ASTM D642 (Method for compression test for shipping containers) and TAPPI T811 (Edgewise Compressive Strength for Corrugated Fiberboard). However, many studies have used a single ratio (see Table 1). This could have contributed to more carbon atoms in briquette C (20:80 ratio of WH to molasses). The carbonized materials were harvested at an average rate of 36.67g/min (550 grams in 12 minutes). USA Patent, 2753014.

A pillow-shaped briquette moulder with dimensions (cm) 50 x 60 x 25 was fabricated [21]. Several studies report production of briquette from rice husk blended with corn cobs and starch solution binder [5], rice husk and bran with binders cassava wastewater, and okra stem gum [6], bagasse, clay and molasses [7], wood charcoal bonded with arabic gum and cassava starch [8], low rank coal and sawdust [9]. Antal MJ, Croiset E, Dai X, DeAlmeida C, Mok WS, Norberg N. Demirbas A Calculation of higher heating values of biomass, New directions in black carbon organic geochemistry.

From Table 2, bulk density and compressive strength have shown inverse relationship with each other. The next index of failure considered was the first appearance and formation of cracks upon subjection to load. Reduction in porosity and consequently increasing density can influence the combustion rate of briquettes by hampering the outflow and infiltration rate of oxidant during combustion.

Low-temperature co-pyrolysis of a low-rank coal and biomass to prepare smokeless fuel briquettes, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. A one-way ANOVA was conducted in order to test the difference for the parameters in briquettes produced with different charcoal/binder ratios. Forty grams of the prepared water hyacinth-molasses blends was placed into each mould of the fabricated moulder.

Energy in the form of firewood and charcoal has been the most conventional source of renewable energy in developing countries and has traditionally been used to dispose of these wastes. The briquettes produced from the different formulations of water hyacinth charcoal and molasses are shown in Fig 4. The presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the charcoal means that it contains fats and oils that are related to butane or isobutene, making it easier for the charcoal to burn or heat up. Eriksson S. and Prior M., 1990, The Briquetting of Agricultural Wastes for Fuel, FAO Energy and Environment Paper 11, FAO, Rome.

A was the first to exhibit cracking from a load of 3.93 kg, followed by C which started cracking upon subjection to 7.4 kg. World Bank, 1990b, World Development Report 1990, World Bank, Washington D.C. World Resources Institute, 1985, Tropical Forests: A Call for Action, Vols. *One Way Anova at 95% Confidence (p = 0.05). The liquids present in the charcoal other than water which are easy to vaporize are called volatile matters (VCM).

Compression Test was conducted at the Packaging Laboratory of Central Philippines University, Iloilo City Philippines. The proximate analysis showed that the briquettes having higher fixed carbon have lower ash content. Charcoal yield depends greatly on the range of temperature for the production of pyrolysis products. The fewer residues left after combustion, the greater amount of fixed carbon and combustible substance such as the VCM are present. For each type of blend A, B and C, one gram of sample in a crucible was dried in a natural convection oven (Binder (ED)-model 115) at 105 C for 2 hours taking note of the initial and final weights using an analytical balance (Shimadzu electronic balance type ATY124). 1987. The analysis shows that molasses contain large amount of carbon-containing compounds in sugar thereby affecting the proximate analysis of the briquettes and its combustion property. Cracks were observed on the surface and some broke during briquetting. The presence of these compounds is an attribute of charcoal having good combustion characteristics. Following the ASTM standard, each type of charcoal briquettes was characterized and analyzed for their physical-chemical properties including moisture content, volatile matter content, ash content, fixed carbon, calorific value, bulk density, burning rate and heat utilization efficiency. The steps involved in the development of the briquettes by varying char-binder ratio are shown in Fig 1. The amount of ash or the residue is correlated with the amount of fixed carbon and other combustible component of briquette. The binder used was molasses obtained from First Farmers Holding Corporation (FFHC), an agro-industrial business enterprise. The 15 ml volume of kerosene indicated excess amount of the liquid oil which cannot be contained by the briquettes. BTG, 1991a, Marketing of Cotton Stalk Charcoal Briquettes in Sudan, UNIDO XA/SUD/90/624, Biomass Technology Group, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The average deflection height before breakage of briquette A was 3.47 mm, while that of B was 6.56 mm. Learn more Addition of 10 ml of kerosene resulted in an immediate and easier ignition with a matchstick. In the absence of a hydraulic press, a hydraulic car jack was used for compacting the solids. The site is secure. The results of compressive strength test shows that the 30:70 (B) charcoal to binder ratio has the highest compressive strength followed by 20:80 (C) and the lowest was that 40:60(A).

Other binders used in previous studies are palm oil mill residue and cassava flour [15], cow dung [18], and starch [19]. Forest Products, FAO, Rome.

Bulk density affects combustion efficiency and durability of the briquettes.

While A(40:60) whose bulk density was highest, had the lowest compressive strength. This is also evident in the briquettes produced. Simple Technologies for Charcoal Making. Moreover, fuel wood and biomass residues have low combustion efficiency, also posing environmental and health hazards [2]. Tllez TR, Lopez E, Granado G, Prez E, Lopez R, Guzman J. The economic performance [36] of adding binders to the briquette should be considered in conjunction with pondering the environmental advantages.

8600 Rockville Pike Aerobic/anaerobic digesters is a well-established technology that can produce biogas at a relatively low cost and higher yields [13]. The burning rate of the bio charcoal briquette is the mass of the biocharcoal briquette burned per unit time. Using the analytical balance (Shimadzu electronic balance type ATY124), ten samples for each briquette blend were weighed.

Calorific value is the measure of energy released by the fuel during combustion, while the amount of fixed carbon is one of the major contributors to the heating value of charcoal.

According to previous studies, charcoal should have moisture content of 515% of its gross weight and charcoal with high moisture content (>10%) becomes brittle when heated [25]. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxicity and mutagenicity from domestic cooking using sawdust briquettes, wood and kerosene, Densification characteristics of corn cobs. will also be available for a limited time. An official website of the United States government. Water hyacinth briquette was on fire for 216 seconds and continued burning until all the solids had burned. The yield of water hyacinth charcoal at an average carbonization temperature of 425 oC was 55%. Briquette B showed the maximum compressive strength since cracking occurred at a much higher load of 19 kg.

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Due to the molasses hygroscopic properties, moisture can be trapped inside the briquette. Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies Foley G., 1987, "Exaggerating the Sahelian Woodfuel Problem" Ambio Vol. ESMAP, 1984, Energy Issues and Options in 30 Developing Countries, ESMAP, Washington D.C. ESMAP, 1987, Information and Status Report, ESMAP, World Bank/UNDP, December 20. (Ed. Careers. 2019 The Author(s).

endobj Briquettes were consequently tested with 10 mL of kerosene. The molasses and its analyses were provided by First Farmers Holding Corporation. The yield obtained from this study is in agreement with the expected theoretical yield but higher than the yield from traditional methods of charcoal production. Two types of crushed charcoal were mixed with cassava starch and molded before they were air-dried. FAO, 1987, Technical and Economic Aspects of Using Woodfuels in Rural Industries, Working Document, FAO Forestry Dept., Rome.

endobj The 30:70 charcoal/molasses ratio produced the highest calorific value (16.6 MJ/kg) and compressive strength (19.1 kg/cm2). Bamboo briquette did not burn completely. USAID, 1988, New Direction for A.I.D. Volatile combustible matter and fixed carbon increased with increasing amount of binder while ash content decreased. <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Using match sticks, the samples were ignited one-by-one and the time it takes to burn a certain amount of briquette was recorded.

Institute of Fish Processing Technology, University of the Philippines Visayas, Miagao, Iloilo, Philippines, 3 All data are available in the manuscript. The difference between the initial and final weights of the charcoal is the mass of the charcoal burned. [23] reported that charcoal yield decreased from 43.5 to 31.0% for the walnut shell and 38.3 to 25.4% with an increase in temperature from 550 to 1150 K. The FTIR peaks (Fig 2) from 7602500 cm-1 of pure water hyacinth charcoal show = C-H, -OH-, C-N, -C = C-, N-H, C-O, C = O, and N-O bonds. I, II, III, World Resources Inst., Washington D.C. High malleability of C was the effect of greater amount of molasses mixed with the charcoal. Njogu et al.

FOIA 14, No: 4-5. endobj endobj

[16] showed the technical feasibility and economic viability of densified water hyacinth and cotton stalks. ADB, 1989, Energy indicators of Developing Member Countries of ADB, ADB, Manila. endobj <>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Increase in moisture content decreased the heating value since not all the energy contained in the charcoal can be efficiently transferred [26]. Results show that the briquette with the lowest bulk density which is B (30:70) has the highest compressive strength. The molasses had a brix of 82.38 and total sugar as invert (TSAI) of 56.71%. Density has been reported as a parameter that can influence the combustion rate and is characterized by low porosity and reduce the infiltration of oxidant and outflow of the combustion products during combustion [30]. [15] in their production of briquettes using water hyacinth, empty fruit bunches (palm oil mill residue) and cassava starch. The addition of 5 ml per briquette was observed insufficient and did not allow the briquette to ignite easily. On the other hand, the utilization of biomass waste or residue as energy source could help alleviate dependence on imported energy and its use continues to be a topical issue in both developing and developed countries. Madan wood waste could be considered as a potential renewable raw material to manufacture briquette as alternative energy source. The dried materials were further cut to approximately a length less than 1 cm and width less than 0.5 cm in preparation for the carbonization process. Briquette A containing 60% by weight molasses solution had smooth edges with no visible cracks indicating that the amount of molasses added was enough to evenly coat the surface.

7 0 obj As previously noted, molasses used has a brix of 82.38 and total sugar as invert (TSAI) of 56.71%. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Madan wood (MW) and coconut shell (CS) were used as raw materials in this work. Since incombustible ash has low thermal conductivity, it might also slow down the flame propagation in clay binder. BTG, 1987, Feasibility Study on Semi-Centralized Charcoal Briquette Production from Cotton Stalk in the Republic of Sudan, FOS: SD/87/023, Biomass Technology Group, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. SEM patterns reveal the porous structure of pure water hyacinth charcoal (Fig 3). The sample was further heated at 470C for 2 hours before the sample turns into ashes in order to calculate the volatile combustible matter. This study aims to characterize the optimum ratio of molasses to charcoal in order to produce fuel briquettes with a high calorific value and rapid ignition time. The collected raw materials were brought to the University of the Philippines Visayas, Plant Nursery Station of the Emerging Interdisciplinary Disciplinary Research where the samples were thoroughly washed with distilled water, the plant material excluding the roots were chopped into smaller pieces and sun dried inside the nursery for two weeks. One of the problems commonly encountered in the use of charcoal and briquettes from biomass wastes is their difficulty to ignite [20]. The effect of charcoal/binder ratio on bulk density, compressive strength, burning rate and ignition time is shown in Table 2. The surface was rougher than that of A. Moisture was then calculated. Image B shows the level of coating by molasses. Each briquette was characterized in terms of bulk density, calorific value, compressive strength, proximate analysis and micro-structure by Scanning Electron Microscopy. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Help In this study, as the ratio of molasses to WH increases, the fixed carbon content of the briquette also increased. [14] reported biogas production containing about 46 to 53% methane (CH4) from water hyacinth -cow dung mixture. Studying the overall environmental performance of these materials was outside the scope of this work. A study by Koser et al. It was observed that bamboo briquette remained on fire for 137 sec and then completely stopped burning.

The pressure applied to each mould (120 psi or 8.27 bar) was set constant by allowing the jack to travel the same distance from the reference to the final point. National Library of Medicine Three varying amounts of kerosene were added to the charcoal briquettes to determine the most suitable hold up volume to be used in the ignition test. Further observation during the ignition test was that treatment B continued to ignite and burn on its own, while treatment A and C stopped igniting after some time. One major problem associated with water hyacinth is its rapid growth rate. Demirbas et al. This procedure was repeated until constant weight was obtained.

Prasad K. and Sangren E., 1983, Technical Aspects of Woodburning Cookstoves, Woodburning Stove Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands. The authors would like to thank Stephanie Delima, Anna Marie Sarroza and Jenny Boy Villalva Jr. for their valuable assistance during the study. Tbw)8rC/$|c-x#O~~snT8; p|r{ Eaw3>'PaDKT~R>(2S*goh)x)W9>y\+x+h)Xx,ke_HAhC_}YY>Dk!y%,dq!FwY6)o/M;_ /H9 7N/a r|"Jz MzN%@d E5XA+MJ J5JYT]66ntl|*eQ 5&inT9[%/FJy{dCr 0xMC^$fh"V. Published by Elsevier B.V. Conversion of water hyacinth to charcoal dust via pyrolysis has been reported in several studies as potential source for the production of locally needed fuels [15]. Infrared spectra of carbonized pure water hyacinth were measured on AVATAR 330 Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Spectrophotometer. 8 0 obj Evaluation of water hyacinth (Erichhornia crassipes) as potential raw material source for briquette production, Characterization of fuel briquettes made from sewage sludge mixed with sedge, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, Fuel briquettes from water hyacinth-cow dung mixture as alternative energy for domestic and agro-industrial applications, Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy. Moisture content in charcoal is considered as an impurity and could lower the heating value of the charcoal [25].

SADCC, 1989b, SADCC Energy Sector, Proceedings of a Workshop on New and Renewable Sources of Energy in the SADCC Region, SADCC, Zimbabwe. Compared with other briquettes produced from other sources, FC in this study was comparatively lower than those produced from woody sources and agricultural residues (see Table 1).

Philippine waters that had been damaged by water hyacinth are the Pasig River in Manila and Dansalan River in Datu Piang Maguindanao. Foley G., 1985, "Wood Fuel and Conventional Fuel Demands in the Developing World-, Ambio, Vol. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the 9 0 obj The samples were first transferred to capsules and coated with Palladium (Pd) at 30 mA and analyzed in a JEOL JFC-5510LV Scanning Electron Microscope. This is in agreement with the results of this study which showed that the high ash content of the briquettes (greater than 15%) resulted in low heating value (< 20 MJ/kg). The dried samples were carbonized at an average temperature of 425C in a fabricated fine biomass carbonizer designed by the Forest Products Research Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology. A solution containing 80% by weight molasses was used in the production of briquettes having different charcoal/molasses ratios of 40:60, 30:70, and 20:80. This procedure was repeated until the weight of ash became constant. Munslow B., Katerere Y., Ferf A. and O'Keefe P., 1988, The Fuelwood Trap, Earthscan Publications, London. Three replicate samples were analysed.

<>/Border[0 0 0]/P 3 0 R>> Jaworek A, Jdrusik M, wierczok A, Czech T, Sobczyk AT, Lackowski M. Biomass co-firing-new challenge for electrostatic precipitators, International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, The effect of cane molasses on strength of expansive clay soil, Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences, Mechanical handling characteristics of briquettes from water hyacinth and plantain peel as binder, Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Effect of binder types and amount on physical and combustion characteristics, International Journal of Engineering Research Science and Technology, Fuel characterization of briquettes produced from corncob and rice husk residues, The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Physical and combustion characteristics of briquettes made from water hyacinth and phytoplankton scum as binder, Energy efficiency and environmental aspects of the combustion coal-water slurries with and without petrochemicals, Major gas combustion for combustion of slurry fuels based on coal, coal waste, and coal derivatives, Environmental indicators of the combustion of prospective coal water slurry containing petrochemicals, Environmental benefits and drawbacks of composite fuels based on industrial wastes and different ranks of coal, Physical and combustion properties of briquettes produced from sawdust of three hardwood species and different organic binders. Greater amount of water was added to briquette C than in B and A, resulting in higher amount of moisture.

67, World Bank, Washington D.C. Manibog F., 1984, Improved Cooking Stoves in Developing Countries: Problems and Opportunities", Energy 9, 197-227.

Before DGIS, 1987, Renewable Energy for Developing Countries: 10 Years of Dutch Experience, DGIS and Technology and Development Group, of University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. The results revealed that charcoal briquettes made from Madan wood (100%) had the highest calorific value of 6,622 cal/g. This work was supported by the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research, University of Philippines-Visayas to JP.

Total sugar as invert refers to the disaccharides that are inverted by hydrolysis to form monosaccharides. sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal The calorific value was determined according to the method ASTM n: D5885 10a method was used. The new PMC design is here! A. C. M. and Bridgwater A. V., 1989, "Gasification and Pyrolysis of Biomass in Europe", in Ferrero G. L., Maniatis K., Beukens A. and Bridgwater A. V., (Eds.

The atomic groups and structure present are aromatic, aliphatic, saturated ethers, amines, nitro, tertiary and secondary hydroxyl structures.